Antibodies recognizes a polypeptide which is identified as insulin, a 51-amino acid polypeptide composed of A and B chains connected through the C-peptide. Proinsulin, which has very little biological activity, is cleaved by proteases within its cell of origin into the insulin molecule and the C-terminal basic residue. Insulin enhances membrane transport of glucose, amino acids, and certain ions. It also promotes glycogen storage, formation of triglycerides, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. Deficiency of insulin results in diabetes mellitus. The main storage site for insulin is the pancreatic islets. Antibodies to insulin are important as beta-cell and insulinoma marker.