S100P is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of a wide range of cells, and they are involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100P is expressed in various normal tissues including placenta, bladder, spleen and gastric and intestinal mucosa. Overexpression of S100P has been detected in several cancers such as colon, prostate, pancreatic and lung carcinomas. It has been functionally implicated in carcinogenic processes. S100P is an early developmental marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis and can be used as a marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It may also serve as a predictor of distant metastasis and poor survival in non-small cell lung carcinomas.